Brief introduction: p53 is a tumor suppressor gene. Mutation of this gene occurs in more than 50% of all malignant tumors. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that controls the start of the cell cycle. Many cell health signals are transmitted to the p53 protein, and p53 determines whether it is favorable to begin cell division. If the cell is damaged and cannot be repaired, p53 protein participate is beginning cell apoptosis. Normal p53 protein biologically functions as the “guardian of the genome” by checking DNA damage points and monitoring genome completeness in the G1 stage. p53 protein prevents DNA replication to provide sufficient time for repair of damaged DNA. If repair fails, the p53 protein initializes apoptosis. If two copies of the p53 gene have mutations, cell replication is uncontrolled, and can result in cell carcinogenesis.
Phenotypic characteristics: p53 is an important tumor suppressor gene. Mutation of this gene occurs in more than 50% of all malignant tumors. After p53 gene mutation, the p53 gene loses its regulatory function on cell growth, apoptosis and DNA repair, thereby allowing carcinogenesis instead of suppressing it.