B-hCD38 mice

September 23, 2020

CD38 is a 42 kD glycoprotein, also known as T10. It is an ADP-ribosyl hydrolase, expressed on B cells, NK cells, a subset of T cells, brain, muscle, and kidney. In mouse, CD38 expression is downregulated on germinal center B cells and plasma cells, whereas this is not the case for humans. By functioning as […]

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B-hB7-H3 mice

September 23, 2020

CD276 (Cluster of Differentiation 276) is a human protein encoded by the CD276 gene and belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. The transcript of B7-H3 is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues and solid tumors, the protein is preferentially expressed only in tumor tissues. B7H3 is expressed on immune cells (such as antigen-presenting cells or macrophages) and […]

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B-hTNFA/hTNFR2 mice

September 18, 2020

TNF gene encodes a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumornecrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers. Members of this superfamily can be released from the cell membrane by extracellular proteolytic cleavage and function as […]

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B-NDG HLA-A2.1 mice

September 18, 2020

Whereas humanized mouse models have contributed significantly to human immunology research, human T cells developing in mouse thymic environment fail to demonstrate HLA-restricted function.To achieve HLA-restricted human immune response, we created NOD/SCID/IL2rg null strain (B-NDG) with homozygous expression of HLA class I heavy chain and lightchain (B-NDG HLA 2.1 mice). The model B2m gene (Exon1 […]

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B-hTLR8 Mice

September 17, 2020

Toll-like receptor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR8 gene and a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family, also called CD288 (cluster of differentiation 288). This gene is predominantly expressed in lung and peripheral blood leukocytes, and lies in close proximity to another family member, TLR7, on chromosome X. […]

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B-hC5AR1 Mice

September 17, 2020

The receptor for C5a plays a critical role in numerous inflammatory conditions. C5a is a member of the complement cascade, an important mechanism for host defense against bacteria. Increased complement activation and excessive production of C5a have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, and considerable effort has gone into developing C5aR antagonists, […]

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B-hCD94 Mice

September 17, 2020

Natural killer (NK) cells are a distinct lineage of lymphocytes that mediate cytotoxic activity and secrete cytokines upon immune stimulation. Several genes of the C-type lectin superfamily, including members of the NKG2 family, are expressed by NK cells and may be involved in the regulation of NK cell function. CD94 (Cluster of Differentiation 94), also […]

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B-hCTLA4/hGITR Mice

September 17, 2020

CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152, competitively binds to B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) on Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs) to block the T cell activating signal by B7 and CD28 (on T cells) interaction. The inhibition of CTLA4 by its inhibitory antibodies enhances T cell activity. The CTLA4 antibody is the first FDA-approved […]

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B-hPD1/hLAG3/hTIM3 mice

September 17, 2020

PD-1 (Programmed death-1) is mainly expressed on the surface of T cells and primary B cells. The two PD-1 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, are widely expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). PD-L1 expression is favorable for tumorigenesis and growth, for induction of anti-tumor T cell apoptosis, and for escaping responses by the immune system. Inhibition of […]

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B-hNKG2A mice

September 16, 2020

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that can mediate lysis of certain tumor cells and virus-infected cells without previous activation. They can also regulate specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. KLRD1 (CD94) is an antigen preferentially expressed on NK cells and is classified as a type II membrane protein because it has an external C terminus. […]

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