Olaquindox-Induced Liver Damage Involved the Crosstalk of Oxidative Stress and p53 In Vivo and In Vitro

Olaquindox-Induced Liver Damage Involved the Crosstalk of Oxidative Stress and p53 In Vivo and In Vitro

Abstract

Olaquindox (OLA), a member of the quinoxaline-N,N-dioxide family, has been widely used as a growth-promoting feed additive and treatment for bacterial infections. The toxicity has been a major concern, and the precise molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. The present study was aimed at investigating the roles of oxidative stress and p53 in OLA-caused liver damage. In a mouse model, OLA administration could markedly cause liver injury as well as the induction of oxidative stress and activation of p53. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited OLA-induced oxidative stress and p53 activation in vivo. Furthermore, knockout of the p53 gene could significantly inhibit OLA-induced liver damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and the mitochondria apoptotic pathway, compared to the p53 wild-type liver tissue. The cell model in vitro further demonstrated that p53 knockout or knockdown in the HCT116 cell and L02 cell significantly inhibited cell apoptosis and increased cell viability, presented by suppressing ROS production, oxidative stress, and the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Moreover, loss of p53 decreased OLA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activations, with the evidence of inhibited activation of phosphorylation- (p-) p38 and p-JNK and upregulated cell autophagy via activation of the LC3 and Beclin1 pathway in HCT116 and L02 cells. Taken together, our findings provided a support that p53 primarily played a proapoptotic role in OLA-induced liver damage against oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, which were largely dependent on suppression of the JNK/p38 pathway and upregulation of the autophagy pathway via activation of LC3 and Beclin1.

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