The immunodeficient B-NDG mouse model (NOD.CB17-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1/Bcgen) was independently designed and generated by Biocytogen. B-NDG mice are generated by deleting the IL2rg gene from NOD-scid mice with severe immunodeficiency phenotype. Lacking mature T cells, B cells, functional NK cells and displaying cytokine signaling deficiencies, this mouse model has the highest degree of immunodeficiency and thus is most suitable for engraftment and growth of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human tumor cells or tissues.
1. Body Weight Growth
Figure 1. Body weight growth curve of B-NDG mice after birth
Newborn pups (50 males and 50 females, respectively) were obtained at weaning (Week 3; birth date +/- 3 days). Body weight was measured once every week (on the same day each week) for 8 weeks.
2. Serum Antibody (IgG and IgM) Response
Figure 2. IgG and IgM response in the sera of BALB/c, B-NDG and PBS
Value of OD450 in the sample from BALB/c mice is significantly higher than that from PBS and B-NDG mice (~0.04), indicating little or no IgG or IgM in the sera of B-NDG mice.
3. Serum Antibody (IgG subclasses) Response
Figure 3. IgG subclasses response in the sera of BALB/c, B-NDG and 1%BSA
Value of OD450 in the sample from BSA is ~ 0.06 (baseline is 0.1), indicating there is no cross-reaction among antibody capture, linking of enzyme to the antibody and BSA. Compared with the value from BALB/c mice, the value from B-NDG mice is below the baseline. This result suggests that there is no IgG subclasses in sera of B-NDG mice, confirming it is an ideal mouse model with severe immunodeficiency.
4. Flow-cytometric Analysis Using Specific Markers for T, B and NK Cells
Figure 4. Loss of T, B and NK cells in B-NDG mice.
(A) Splenocytes of BALB/c, NOD-scid and B-NDG mice were isolated. Fractions of T, B and NK cells were characterized using flow-cytometry. (B) Statistical analysis of sorted cells.
5. Flow-cytometric Analysis Using Specific Markers for NK Cells
Figure 5. NKp46 expression in splenocytes and blood cells.
NKp46 expression was detected in splenocytes and blood cells of C57BL/6 mice, but not in B-NDG, indicating the absence of NK cells.
6. Hematology Test Results
Figure 6. Complete blood count test results for B-NDG mice.
Abbreviation Full Name Abbreviation Full Name WBC white blood cell count NE# neutrophil count RBC red blood cell count NE% neutrophil percentage Hb hemoglobin LY# lymphocyte count HCT hematocrit or packed cell volume LY% lymphocyte percentage MCV mean corpuscle (cell) volume EO# eosinophil count MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin EO% eosinophil percentage MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MO# monocyte count RDW red cell distribution width MO% monocyte percentage PLT platelet count BA# basophil count MPV mean platelet volume BA% basophil percentage
7. Biochemical Test Results for Blood
Instrument: Thermo Fisher scientific # Indiko
Sample: sera or plasma
Abbreviation Full Name Explanation ALT Alanine transaminase High level indicates liver injured AST Aspartate transaminase High level indicates liver damage CHOL Cholesterol High level indicates high blood lipid CR Creatinine High level indicates low glomerular filtration GLU Glucose Hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia TRIG Triacylglycerol High level indicates high blood lipid UREA Urea High level indicates kidney damage, liver disease, diabetes or infection.
Animal Breeding and Maintenance
1. Animal Housing and Husbandry
1.1 Health Status of Housing
Health status of housing: B-NDG mice are housed in isolators instead of IVCs in our facility. Based on our experience, the mice can live up to 2 months in SPF standard IVCs. This time frame matches the requirements of most experiments performed with B-NDG mice. To improve facility standards, strict sanitation procedures are recommended: cages and bedding need to be sterilized by autoclaving or Co60 irradiation before use, and cages need to be changed in laminar flow hoods weekly. Keeping a clean, high standard housing environment helps to improve the life span of B-NDG mice.
1.2. Animal Husbandry
5CJL from Labdiet (USA) is recommended to use for breeding B-NDG mice (19.3% protein, 6.2% fat, 20 ppm Vitamin K). Co60 radiation is recommended to sterilize the food before use.
B-NDG mice are housed in pathogen-free isolators in our facility. Autoclaved purified water is used.
For SPF standard facilities, we recommend following the Jackson Lab standard for water supply: acidified water (adjust pH to 2.5-3.0 using HCl), autoclaved to prevent Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Autoclaved purified water can also be used with more frequent water changes. Bottle must be changed every 3 days regardless if there is still water left in the bottle.
Shavings are the recommended bedding material for B-NDG mice. The bedding material needs to be sterile, soft, dust-free, odor-free and have high moisture absorbance. Sterilization by autoclaving or irradiation is required before use.
Bedding needs to be changed weekly in laminar flow hoods if the mice are not housed in isolators. Mice need to be transferred into new cages with fresh bedding using sterile tweezers or forceps.
Enough light time and appropriate light intensity are necessary for breeding. We use a standard light cycle, which is 12-hours of light followed by 12-hours of dark.
Housing temperature is strictly 20-26 °C. The temperature difference between day and night should not be more than 4 °C.
Cages need to be made from non-toxic material and must be easy to clean and disinfect. Thorough cleaning and disinfection is required every week at least.
Parameters Range recommended Temperature 20℃-26℃ Humidity 40%-70% Ventilating rate 15 times per hr Light Cycle 12:12（standard） Light intensity 15-20 lux (in cage) Noise ≤60 db
Biocytogen’s B-NDG mouse can be shipped using land and/or air. Although the courier is notified to handle the crate with care, stress response of mice during shipment is still inevitable. Although enough supply of water jelly and food will be provided in cages, increased metabolism and fecal excretion caused by the stress may result in dehydration and loss of body weight. General percentage weight loss due to shipment is ~10%. The percentage can be as high as 15% if the shipment procedure is longer and the cage is populated. Usually, most of the lost body weight is regained (although cannot reach 100%) after 5-7 days of adaptive feeding (Labdiet food is recommended).
3. Adaptive Feeding
Importance of adaptive feeding
Before performing experiments, at least 5-7 days of feeding in the receiving facility are required so that the animals can adapt to their new environment, and the stress response caused by transportation can be eliminated or alleviated.
Brief procedure description of adaptive feeding
Perform animal husbandry following 188.8.131.52. Monitor the health status of animals by observing their appearance (e.g. hair), feces and activity. Separate the animals from other animals in the facility as the sound and smell (e.g. Ammonia smelling feces) from other animals may be stimuli. Adaptive feeding is a critical prerequisite for successful experiments.
Anti-Tumor Efficacy in CDX & Humanized Models
- Guiding T lymphopoiesis from pluripotent stem cells by defined transcription factors
- An unexpected role for p53 in regulating cancer cell–intrinsic PD-1 by acetylation
- Exosome-derived miR-142-5p remodels lymphatic vessels and induces IDO to promote immune privilege in the tumour microenvironment
- piRNA-30473 contributes to tumorigenesis and poor prognosis by regulating m6A RNA methylation in DLBCL
- Chimeric Antigen Receptor Designed to Prevent Ubiquitination and Downregulation Showed Durable Antitumor Efficacy
- Leukemogenic Chromatin Alterations Promote AML Leukemia Stem Cells via a KDM4C-ALKBH5-AXL Signaling Axis
- Multiple Signaling Roles of CD3ε and Its Application in CAR-T Cell Therapy
- Circular RNA cESRP1 sensitises small cell lung cancer cells to chemotherapy by sponging miR-93-5p to inhibit TGF-β signalling
- Protease-activated receptor 2 stabilizes Bcl-xL and regulates EGFR–targeted therapy response in colorectal cancer
- Alpha lipoic acid promotes development of hematopoietic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells by antagonizing ROS signals
- Epigenetically silenced linc00261 contributes to the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via inducing the deficiency of FOXA2 transcription
- Therapeutic Targeting of CDK7 Suppresses Tumor Progression in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
- Expression levels of a gene signature in hiPSC associated with lung adenocarcinoma stem cells and its capability in eliciting specific antitumor immune-response in a humanized mice model
- Promising xenograft animal model recapitulating the features of human pancreatic cancer
- Effective antitumor activity of 5T4-specific CAR-T cells against ovarian cancer cells in vitro and xenotransplanted tumors in vivo
- NEK2 induces autophagy-mediated bortezomib resistance by stabilizing Beclin-1 in multiple myeloma
- Cancer-secreted exosomal miR-1468-5p promotes tumor immune escape via the immunosuppressive reprogramming of lymphatic vessels
- HDAC2 inhibits EMT-mediated cancer metastasis by downregulating the long noncoding RNA H19 in colorectal cancer
- Integrative multi-omics analysis of a colon cancer cell line with heterogeneous Wnt activity revealed RUNX2 as an epigenetic regulator of EMT
- Sequential treatment with aT19 cells generates memory CAR-T cells and prolongs the lifespan of Raji-B-NDG mice
- Preliminary biological evaluation of 123I-labelled anti-CD30-LDM in CD30-positive lymphomas murine models
- Glycyrrhizic acid improves cognitive levels of aging mice by regulating T/B cell proliferation
- Degradable Carbon-Silica Nanocomposite with Immunoadjuvant Property for Dual-Modality Photothermal/Photodynamic Therapy
- Long non-coding RNA SOX2OT promotes the stemness phenotype of bladder cancer cells by modulating SOX2
- Long non-coding RNA CASC9 promotes tumor growth and metastasis via modulating FZD6/Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in bladder cancer
- A Tumor-Targeted Replicating Oncolytic Adenovirus Ad-TD-nsIL12 as a Promising Therapeutic Agent for Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- TriBAFF-CAR-T cells eliminate B-cell malignancies with BAFFR-expression and CD19 antigen loss
- Two-step protocol for regeneration of immunocompetent T cells from mouse pluripotent stem cells
- R9AP is a functional receptor for Epstein-Barr virus infection in both epithelial cells and B cells
- Licochalcone A improves the cognitive ability of mice by regulating T- and B-cell proliferation
- Downregulation of lncRNA ZNF582-AS1 due to DNA hypermethylation promotes clear cell renal cell carcinoma growth and metastasis by regulating the N(6)-methyladenosine modification of MT-RNR1
- Cutting Edge: Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Activity Induces the Generation and Enhanced Suppressive Function of Human IL-10 + FOXP3 +-Induced Regulatory T Cells
- Anti-leukemia activities of selenium nanoparticles embedded in nanotube consisted of triple-helix β-d-glucan
- Oncolytic adenovirus targeting TGF-β enhances anti-tumor responses of mesothelin-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy against breast cancer
- A PTK7-targeted antibody-drug conjugate reduces tumor-initiating cells and induces sustained tumor regressions
- Long-Term Engraftment Promotes Differentiation of Alveolar Epithelial Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Lung Organoids
- LunX-CAR T Cells as a Targeted Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
- A Tumor-Targeted Replicating Oncolytic Adenovirus Ad-TD-nsIL12 as a Promising Therapeutic Agent for Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- MUC1-Tn-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with enhanced antigen-specific anti-tumor activity
- Natural small molecule triptonide inhibits lethal acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3-ITD mutation by targeting Hedgehog/FLT3 signaling
- Targeting epidermal growth factor-overexpressing triple-negative breast cancer by natural killer cells expressing a specific chimeric antigen receptor
- The combination of CUDC-907 and gilteritinib shows promising in vitro and in vivo antileukemic activity against FLT3-ITD AML
- BMI1 regulates multiple myeloma-associated macrophage’s pro-myeloma functions
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